Organizational Theories and Management Practice

Sarita A


Currently, very few things are as important or taken for granted as organizations. Although they enjoy the goods and services they provide on a daily basis, they rarely worry about asking how such goods and services are produced. Often you see news of assembly lines that produce cars or computers, but rarely the human being asks how or why these organizations undertake their business.

Robbins, (1997) mentions that: "The organization is described as a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, which functions relatively continuously to achieve a goal or set of common goals." (p.5). An organization always includes people these people are involved with each other in one way or another, that is, they interact with each other, these interactions can be ordered or described by means of a certain kind of structure, every person within the organization has personal goals some of which are the reasons for their actions and hopes that their participation in the organization will help them achieve their objectives, that is, as people have common goals with the company. The purpose of organizations is to generate an economic capital where goods and services can be generated or produced in order to satisfy social needs in some way, while remaining in time and at the same time pursuing the development of the people who make it up.

Organizational theories
Organizational theories

Richard L. Daft (2011) in his book Theory and Organizational Design mentions:

 “The organizational theory provides the tools to analyze and understand how a large and powerful company, such as Lehman Brothers,can die, and a company like Bank of America can emerge almost overnight as a giant in the industry. It allows us to understand how a band like the Rolling Stones, which operates as a very advanced global business organization, can enjoy phenomenal success for almost half a century, while some musical groups with equal or greater talent do not survive more than a couple. of successes. Organizational theory helps explain what happened in the past, as well as what might happen in the future, in order to manage organizations more effectively. "

In fact, the managers of companies such as Xerox, Lehman Brothers, Bank of America and even the Rolling Stones continuously face numerous challenges. For example:

  • How can the organization adapt to or control external elements such as competitors, customers, government and creditors in a fast-moving environment?
  • What strategic and structural changes are needed to help the organization achieve effectiveness?
  • How can the organization avoid ethical managerial lapses that jeopardize its viability?
  • How can managers deal with large-scale problems and bureaucracy?
  •   What is the appropriate use of power and politics among administrators?
  •   How should the internal conflict be handled?
  • What kind of corporate culture is needed to increase rather than impede innovation and change, and how can managers shape that culture?

Then we can infer that organizational theories apply to any organization, they start from the study of how organizations work, and how they influence the environment in which they operate and are affected by it.

Organizational theories arise due to the entropy of the organizations to create a model or a theoretical basis to follow, the theory of organization part of how order is generated, through organized action, these theories are aimed at understanding the structure of the organizations. Where the research focuses on knowing if there is a model or superior method for the structuring of organizations, or if it fluctuates according to each scenario. You can not study organizations but you study the actors that comprise the organization, you can not automatically assume that the organization already has members and that those members have already accepted and are part of the organizational dynamics, the organization has to attract the members and coordinate them. Organizational theories are divided into three categories: classical, neoclassical and modern.

Organizational theories and managerial practice models of theories
Organizational theories and managerial practice models of theories

Regarding the above Antonio Gándara (2007) in his synthesis of modern and postmodern theories of the organization states: These theories arise or are formally studied in the mid-twentieth century, with the Industrial Age being the prevailing but in frank transition to a it was emerging known as the "Knowledge Era" where the organization begins to change aspects such as, the way of seeing itself and interacting with its environment as fundamental elements in the conception of its structure; Greater emphasis is given to the human being as the central actor of the organization, as a generator of knowledge and a driving factor of organizational effectiveness and efficiency, adopting concepts that point to easily restructured and adaptable systems to the changes and requirements of their environment as a measure of competitiveness and permanence in its market niche, emphasizing the quality of the service and the effective management of information and knowledge

Approaches arise that try to adapt the organization to this new world reality which suggests changes that go from aspects in the economic, social and even humanistic order, situation that drives the need to readjust the theories already existing adding new philosophical, functional or operational, which in many cases leads to the formulation of new theories and changes of paradigms. In this sense, approaches are handled such as: "The Systems approach", "The Socio-technical approach" and "The Contingency approach" within modernity; while within the so-called post-modern ones we can mention "The Cybernetic Approach", "The Information Systems Approach" and "The Social Hologram Approach" among the most relevant.

From the 30s and from the School of Human Relations, Elton Mayo and Chester I. Barnard together with others, demonstrate that motivation is key in the real integration of individuals in organizations, giving way then to the emergence of theories modern with emphasis on the individual, roles, behavior patterns and the physical and social environment where these unfolds.

Organizational theories types
Organizational theories types

This diversity of theories in the different fields of study led to the formation of schools of thought and currents that are the basis of managerial and administrative theory. At present, many theories about management practices are handled, where in many cases the horizon is often lost trying to specify in a specific way, the application of a good managerial practice has its fruit in the combination of them in order to obtain a better result. The management must understand and locate each process of the company and at the same time must ask if the staff that works knows the company, if it is willing to accelerate the pace of the world to adapt and learn new areas of competence. Among the theories of managerial practice we can mention human talent management, planning, strategy, strategic management of change, among others. The objective is to merge the areas of competence and structure a matrix that allows to transfer the knowledge generated in the company, using a combination of the tools that offer the best management practices.

Finally, the constant exponential growth of the population and the accelerated rhythm of the human being has forced organizations, markets and companies to adapt to it. Where the organization that is most willing to innovate both in technology and invest in training and training of its staff is more likely to remain in the world of growth and financial market.
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Jones, G. (2008). Teoría organizacional y diseño de cambio en las organizaciones. México: Editorial Pearson Educación.

Polo, G. (2011). Teoría organizacional para la gerencia humana como factor de desarrollo a escala humana. [Documento en línea]. Disponible en: 

Chiavenato, I. (1994). Administración de recursos humanos. México: Editorial: McGraw Hill

Gándara, G. (2007). Síntesis de las teorías modernas y post modernas de la organización. . [Documento en línea]. Disponible en: 

Gregoria, L. (2011). Teoría organizacional para la gerencia humana como factor de desarrollo a escala humana. [Documento en línea]. Disponible en: http//Dialnet-Teoria Organizacional Para Gerencia Humana Como Factor-5114830%20(1).pdf